Renewable energies were compared with the nuclear option by looking at the quantities of power they can both generate and the level of financial support this requires. This mirrors the extra costs which must be borne by the end consumer or society. Five different renewable technologies were analysed: biomass, onshore and offshore wind, small-scale hydropower plants and photovoltaics.
Governments across the G20 countries are estimated to be spending $88 billion every year subsidising exploration for fossil fuels. Their exploration subsidies marry bad economics with potentially disastrous consequences for climate change. In effect, governments are propping up the development of oil, gas and coal reserves that cannot be exploited if the world is to avoid dangerous climate change.
This report identifies billions of dollars in subsidies for fossil fuel exploration from the world's wealthiest countries. This government support for expanding oil, gas, and coal reserves continues despite a 2009 commitment by G20 countries to phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies, a pledge that has been repeatedly reiterated since then, including by G7 leaders in their June 2014 declaration.
The Inventory Of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditure for Fossil Fuels 2013 collects details on more than 550 fossil fuel support measures in the 34 OECD member countries, including many provided by state and provincial governments. The report also highlights progress made and the benefits identified by a number of OECD countries in reforming support to fossil fuels in recent years. It updates an earlier report released in 2011.
The ability to undertake any meaningful subsidy reforms, either nationally or multilaterally, is hampered by a basic lack of knowledge about the extent of support to the sector and where information on this support might be held. This multi-country research effort identifying and classifying different sources of data on fossil-fuel subsidies has begun to characterize the extent and nature of subsidy programs, identifying the analytical challenges that need to be overcome in order to de-subsidize.
Karl Storchmann. Beginning with the coal crisis of 1958, the survival of the German hard coal mining sector has been heavily dependent on subsidies for several decades.
Methods of Subsidy Identification in the German Energy Sector with Particular Emphasis on Environmentally Harmful Subsidies.
Bettina Meyer. Environmentally Harmful Subsidies, Polish-German Seminar, Cracow, Poland, February 25-26, 2005. Data on German subsidies to the energy sector; discussion of barriers to subsidy reform.
European Environmental Bureau with the assistance of its working group on Environmental Tax Reform. Guidance manual for NGOs on why they should promote subsidy reform and strategies for doing so successfully. Includes brief overviews of environmentally harmful subsidies in HUNGARY, CZECH REPUBLIC, POLAND, AND GERMANY.