David Pimental, Natural Resources Research, June 2003.
Tad Patzek. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 2004. Web version of article linked to here updated most recently in May 2005. Detailed review (100 pages) of the corn-ethanol fuel cycle concludes that production is a net loser from both an energy and an environmental perspective.
International Association for Energy Economics, Conference proceedings. December 4, 2003. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Dominique Guellec and Bruno van Pottelsberghe, OECD Publications. This document attempts to quantify the aggregate net effect of government funding on business R&D in 17 OECD Member countries over the past two decades.
J. J. Dooley for the Battelle Memorial Institute, 2001. Trends in public and private sector investments in energy research and development.
Conference sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, 4-5 March 2002, Arlington, VA. To assist U. S. Department of Energy offices to improve their estimates of the benefits of their R&D programs.
P. J. Runci for the United States Department of Energy, 2003. Analysis of government funding for R&D in Canada.
Thomas Kåberger, presentation at the First Asia Pacific Green Power Conference, Tokyo. Spending government money on research and development has helped develop technologies for utilization of renewable energy. Systems of subsidies have made it possible to have the technologies demonstrated.
Updated regularly. Relies on data reported by members; not verified. Clean coal spending often missing from coal totals.