It is now clear that the federal corn ethanol mandate has driven up food prices, strained agricultural markets, increased competition for arable land and promoted conversion of uncultivated land to grow crops. In addition, previous estimates have dramatically underestimated corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions by failing to account for changes in land use.
Assessing the Return on Pretreatment: An Evaluation of EPA Performance Measurement and PCS Modernization
Prepared with Industrial Economics for the US EPA's Office of Water and the Office of Planning, Analysis, and Accountability. May 2002.