James R. Kuipers. All the states require some form of "reclamation bonding" to ensure that mining operations are conducted responsibly and reduce their liability in the event mining companies fail to fulfill their responsibilities. Bonding levels may be inadequate or insufficiently enforced. Kuipers reviews bonding policies for one part of the US.
hard rock minerals
Review of the 1872 Mining Law, including its high fiscal cost and severe impacts on environmental quality.
Silence is Golden, Leaden, and Copper: Disclosure of Material Environmental Information in the Hard Rock Mining Industry.
Robert Repetto. The adequacy of Canadian and US mining companies' disclosures of material environmental information were found to be deficient, especially in the disclosure to investors of known material environmental risks and liabilities.