Renewable energies were compared with the nuclear option by looking at the quantities of power they can both generate and the level of financial support this requires. This mirrors the extra costs which must be borne by the end consumer or society. Five different renewable technologies were analysed: biomass, onshore and offshore wind, small-scale hydropower plants and photovoltaics.
The EU biofuels industry has increased its use of palm oil by 365 per cent over 2006-2012, from 0.4 to 1.9 million tonnes per year. The additional demand can be linked primarily to the growth in biodiesel production stimulated by government policies (primarily purchase mandates) during the same period. The increase in palm oil consumption in the biofuels sector has amounted to 1.6 million tonnes, or 80 per cent of the total increase in palm oil consumption in Europe (1.9 million tonnes) over 2006-2012.
This study is a contribution to the European Commission’s ongoing efforts to investigate and reform environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). The report focused on three methodologies proposed by the OECD for the identification of EHS, the analysis of their impacts and the implications of their removal - namely the ‘quick scan’, the ‘checklist’ and the ‘integrated assessment’ methods. The methodologies were tested in the context of six case studies, in the field of energy, transport and water.
This study (main report - data annexes) led by IEEP and carried out in collaboration with IVM, Ecologic Institute and VITO aims to support the European Commission in implementing the call in the Resource Efficiency Roadmap to phase out EHS by 2020. The study identifies a number of existing EHS in EU Member States across a range of environmental sectors and issues.
In recent years the manufacturing of renewable-energy technologies has become truly global. The associated rise in international investment and trade in goods and services related to renewable energy has been rapid, but it has not always been smooth. Already there have been challenges at the WTO, and the unilateral imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties, in response to some countries' policies on the grounds that they distort trade.