transfer pricing

Fossil fuel producer subsidies in Russia: A first look

For years, the International Energy Agency has been measuring subsidies to consumers by looking at the gap between world reference prices for a particular form of energy and what that energy sells for in a country's domestic market.  The lower the cost to consumers relative to its world value, the higher the subsidy.   Russia has always been among the top of this list: in the IEA's 2010 update, Russia came in third with just under $40 billion in consumer subsidies.

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