Clandestine nuclear programs have been at the heart of many difficult international conflicts, and that number seems likely to grow. Although the overlap in skills, technologies, and equipment between civilian and military programs is both substantial and well-recognized, the push for the expansion of civilian nuclear power -- even when it makes no economic sense -- has continued unabated. Often, this is justified under the terms of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) that came into force in 1970.
A few useful resources on the potential links between civilian nuclear power and proliferation from NPEC. Here's a couple of recent postings by Henry Sokolski on the technology sharing agreements with Vietnam and UAE. A more detailed exposition of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty can be found here, with a variety of essays on what the NPT does and does not requ