Oil for (almost) nothing and gas for free

Natural resource giveaways to friends and family have long been a global concern, and there is an extensive literature documenting the problem.  This 1999 paper by the International Monetary Fund, for example, finds a link between the degree to which a nation or state is dependent on natural resources and the level of corruption.  This paper from 2009 divides the problems into corruption and patronage:

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